Reasserting America in the 1970s brings together two areas of burgeoning scholarly interest. On the one hand, scholars are investigating the many ways in which the 1970s constituted a profound era of transition in the international order. The American defeat in Vietnam, the breakdown of the Bretton Woods exchange system, and a string of domestic setbacks including Watergate, Three-Mile Island, and reversals during the Carter years all contributed to a grand reappraisal of the power and prestige of the United States in the world. In addition, the rise of new global competitors such as Germany and Japan, the pursuit of détente with the Soviet Union, and the emergence of new private sources of global power also contributed to uncertainty. At the same time, within diplomatic history proper, the study of 'public diplomacy' has generated searching reappraisals of many of the field's certitudes. This scholarship has now begun to move into a new conceptual maturity with a developing theoretical base underwriting its institutional narratives, borrowing to a great degree from the literature on 'Americanization' and the role of American culture abroad in various national and regional settings. Reasserting America in the 1970s brings together these two areas of topical scholarly interest, to study how American public diplomats at home and abroad struggled to maintain American cultural preeminence in a world of shifting challenges to American power.
Since the beginning of the 21st century, China's energy diplomacy has been expanding rapidly and the country is searching for energy resources worldwide. This movement has not only improved China's energy security and international relations, but also enabled the Chinese national oil companies (NOCs) to access new investment markets and implement development strategies. The Chinese government and the NOCs need each other's support to realise their respective interests. The interaction between the government and the NOCs will have a critical influence on China's energy diplomacy. The Domestic Dynamics of China's Energy Diplomacy explores the long-neglected domestic dynamics of China's energy diplomacy, in particular the interaction of national and corporate interests. It argues that the convergence of national and corporate interests is the key momentum of China's energy diplomacy. It observes that the government-NOC relationship has been evolving with China's economic and enterprise reform. Finally, it tests the empirical evidence of the domestic dynamics of China's energy diplomacy against the three mainstream international political economy theories, showing their merits and shortcomings in explaining the phenomenon, before providing an alternative conceptualisation of the movement.
Recent studies on the meaning of cultural diplomacy in the twentieth century often focus on the United States and the Cold War, based on the premise that cultural diplomacy was a key instrument of foreign policy in the nation&#8217;s effort to contain the Soviet Union. As a result, the term &#8220;cultural diplomacy&#8221; has become one-dimensional, linked to political manipulation and subordination and relegated to the margin of diplomatic interactions. This volume explores the significance of cultural diplomacy in regions other than the United States or &#8220;western&#8221; countries, that is, regions that have been neglected by scholars so far&#8212;Eastern Europe, Asia, and the Middle East. By examining cultural diplomacy in these regions, the contributors show that the function of information and exchange programs differs considerably from area to area depending on historical circumstances and, even more importantly, on the cultural mindsets of the individuals involved.
Can independent nations unify politically? Amitai Etzioni raised this searching question in his seminal 1965 book, Political Unification: A Comparative Study of Leaders and Forces. In this revised edition-now with an extensive new introduction-Etzioni convincingly argues that the experiment of collective self-determination is the only viable replacement for a perilously overloaded international system. This fascinating work debates the limitations of informal networks of governance, transnational agencies and cross-nation bonding-including the grand experiment of the European Union-to argue that only a truly transcendent supranational community can effectively succeed the nation-state. He doubts whether the traditional system of international relations can withstand the threat of transnational forces. Old-fashioned diplomacy can neither prevent weapons of mass destruction and hate material moving easily across national borders, nor deal with mass cross-border immigration in the wake of civil war and the rise of political and ethnic separatism. Political Unification Revisited is essential reading for political scientists and scholars of international law and international relations seeking to navigate the path from national sovereignty to world government in the 21st century..